Mt. Elgon is Kenya’s second highest mountain. It lies 140km North East of Lake Victoria and is bisected by the Kenya-Uganda border. It is an ancient eroded volcano with a huge caldera and, on its summit, the spectacular flat topped basalt column known as Koitobos. Another unique feature of the mountain is the lava tube caves, some over 60m wide and frequented by elephants (and other animals) digging for salts. The mountain soils are red laterite. Mt Elgon is an important water catchment for the Nzoia River which flows into Lake Victoria and for the Turkwel river which flows into Lake Turkana.

Mt Elgon National Park was gazetted in 1968 and covers a narrow transect up the North Eastern slopes of the mountain, from lower montane forest to the caldera edge. The remaining forest and moorland is part of the Mt Elgon Forest Reserve. The Ugandan side of the mountain is protected within Uganda’s Mt Elgon National Park.

Vegetation cover of Mt Elgon depends on the altitude. The slopes of the mountain are covered with olive Olea hochstetteri and Aningueria adolfi-friedericii wet montane forest. At higher altitudes, this changes to olive and Podocarpus gracilior forest, and then a Podocarpus and bamboo Arundinaria alpina zone. Higher still is a Hagenia abyssinica zone and then moorland with heaths Erica arborea and Philippia trimera, tussock grasses such as Agrostis gracilifolia and Festuca pilgeri, herbs such as Alchemilla, Helichrysum, Lobelia, and the giant groundsels Senecio barbatipes and Senecio elgonensis.

The botanical diversity of the park includes giant podocarpus, juniper and Elgon olive trees cedar Juniperus procera, pillarwood Cassipourea malosana, elder Sambucus adnata, pure stands of Podocarpus gracilior and many orchids.

Over 400 species recorded for the area the following are of particular note as they only occur in high altitude broad-leaf montane forest: Ardisiandra wettsteinii, Carduus afromontanus, Echinops hoehnelii, Ranunculus keniensis (previously thought endemic to Mount Kenya), and Romulea keniensis.

Location:
On the western border of Kenya with Uganda, in Trans-nzoia District of Rift Valley Province. It covers an area of 169km2.

Climate:
The climate is moist to moderate dry. Annual rainfall is over 1,270mm.

HOW TO GET THERE

Roads:
Mt. Elgon is located 470 kms from Nairobi. Access is via tarmac road to Kitale and then to the Chorlim Gate. Two routes to the gate can be used, either via Endebess or take the tarmac road 11km past Kitale and turn left onto a murrum road leading to the gate.

Airstrips:
At Park Headquarters.

Park Roads:
Adequate road network.

Park Gates:
There are four park gates i.e. Chorlim main gate, Kassawai, Kiptogot and Kimothon.

MAJOR ATTRACTIONS

Together with the fauna and flora, the park is endowed with variety and breathtaking scenery of cliffs, caves, waterfalls, gorges, mesas, calderas, hot springs, and the mountain peaks.

The most popular areas are the four explorable, vast caves where frequent night visitors such as elephants and buffaloes come to lick the natural salt found on the cave walls. Kitum cave, with overhanging crystalline walls, enters 200 m into the side of Mt. Elgon.

The breathtaking natural beauty of the park can be best appreciated from the Endebess Bluff where one gets a panoramic view of the areas’ escarpments, gorges, mesas, and rivers.

The highest peak of Mt. Elgon on the Kenya side, Koitoboss, measures 13,852 ft (4,155 m), and is easily reached by hikers in about two hours from the road’s end.

FACILITIES

Bandas:
Kapkuro Banda

Campsites:
Public: Rongai Campsite; Nyati Campsite; Chorlim Campsite.
Special: Salt lick Campsite.

Lodges:
Mt. Elgon Lodge, 28 beds. Situated 0.5 km. outside the park gate.

Picnic Sites:
There is one picnic site at the Elephant platform with no facilities.

Nature Trails:
The park has three short nature trails to Kiptum cave, Makingeny cave and the Elephant Bluff.

ACTIVITIES

* Vehicle circuits leading to animal viewing areas, the caves and Koitoboss peak.
* Self-guided walking trails (Ask for the Kitum Cave guide book at the gate)
* Hiking to Endebess Bluff and Koitoboss Peak
* Primate and bird watching
* Cave explorations
* Camping Photography

COMMON VEGETATION

The vegetation varies with altitude. The mountain slopes are covered with olive Olea hochstetteri and Aningueria adolfi-friedericii wet montane forest. At higher altitudes, this changes to olive and Podocarpus gracilior forest, and then a Podocarpus and bamboo Arundinaria alpina zone. Higher still is a Hagenia abyssinica zone and then moorland with heaths Erica arborea and Philippia trimera, tussock grasses such as Agrostis gracilifolia and Festuca pilgeri, herbs such as Alchemilla, Helichrysum, Lobelia, and the giant groundsels Senecio barbatipes and Senecio elgonensis.

The botanical diversity of the park includes giant podocarpus, juniper and Elgon olive trees cedar Juniperus procera, pillarwood Cassipourea malosana, elder Sambucus adnata, pure stands of Podocarpus gracilior and many orchids.

Of the 400 species recorded for the area the following are of particular note as they only occur in high altitude broad-leaf montane forest: Ardisiandra wettsteinii, Carduus afromontanus, Echinops hoehnelii, Ranunculus keniensis (previously thought endemic to Mount Kenya), and Romulea keniensis.

Information a bout Trekking Stages

Sasa Trail:
1st Stage: Budadiri – Sasa River Camp 10,5km by way of the village of Bumasola and Mudange Cliffs.
2nd Stage: Sasa River camp – Mude Cave 5km via Sasa Patrol hut.
3rd Stage: Mude Cave – Wagagai Summit – Mude Cave 18km
4th Stage: Return to Sasa River Camp 5km. Time permitting before leaving Mude Cave a side trek exists to Jackson Summit 8km return.
5th Stage: Sasa River Camp – Budadiri 10,5km

Sasa Trail combined with Piswa Trail

1st Stage: Kapkata – Piswa Patrol Hut Camp 11km
2nd Stage: Piswa Patrol Hut Camp – Hunters Cave Camp 18km
3rd Stage: Hunters Cave Camp – Mude Cave Camp 11km, side track to Hot Springs Hot Springs 3km.
4th Stage: Maude Cave – Wagagai Summit – Mude Cave Camp 18km
5th Stage: Mude Cave – Sasa River Camp 5km
6th Stage: Sasa River Camp – Budadiri 10,5km

Sasa Trail combined with – Sipi Trail
This is route has been created and its still new the most popular alternative is trekking from Budadiri to Wagagai Peak to Sipi Falls. It is possible to do the trail in the reverse direction. The route follows the Sasa Trail path via Maude Cave to Wagagai summit descending on the Sipi Trail to Sipi Falls by way of Kajeri Peak and the Forest Exploration Centre.

One doing a Sasa-Piswa Trail or Sasa-Sipi Trail combination is expected to pay for the transport of his or her porters and guide back to Budadiri or Kapkwata depending on which direction you make the traverse. In case you live your vehicle at the starting point you will get yourself back to the start point.

Tourist activities
Hiking or Mountain climbing, nature guided walks bird watching, caving, hot springs and Sipi waterfall viewing.
Spectacular scenery for scenic viewing is the main attraction for hikers, a variety of monkeys and small antelopes, along with elephants and buffalos can be seen.
To the keen birders, a checklist topping 300 birds includes many species not recorded elsewhere in Uganda.
Other attractions include ancient cave paintings and hot springs within the crater.
Getting to the Park
It’s a four hours drive from Kampala to Mbale via Tororo .
Four hours from Kampala-Mbale via Jinja and Tirinyi with a distance of 256km.
30km from Mbale to Budadiri.
45km from Sipi falls-Kapkwata.
66km Mbale – Sipi Falls.

Your climb should be organized from the Mt. Elgon National Park Headquarters in Mbale, Plot 19-21, Masaba Rd., House #84. There are trailheads at Budadiri and at Kapnarkut where park fees and trekking can also be organised

Mbale is 4 hours from Kampala via Tororo.
Kampala – Mbale via Jinja and Tirinyi Rd – 256km 3 hours.
Mbale – Budadiri – 30km 1 hour (road can be muddy and slippery in wet conditions).
Mbale – Sipi Falls – 66km 1 1/2 hours.
Sipi Falls – Kapkwata – 45km 1 1/2 hours

Accommodation:
On the Mountain:
Inside the park, there are basic camping sites. For those without their own equipment the National Parks office in Mbale has tents for rental and sleeping bags. You must bring your own warm clothing. There are no rental facilities in Budadiri.
National Park Bandas

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Murchison Falls National Park

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Lake Mburo National Park

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Semliki National Park

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Queen Elizabeth National Park

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Mgahinga National Park

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Kidepo Valley National Park

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Mt Elgon National Park

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